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The following technical bulletins were published by AERA.
 FRONT OF ENGINE OIL LEAKS
                                         Front Of Engine Oil Leaks On
                                       1991-92 GM 1.9L Saturn Engines

AERA machine shops have reported engine oil leaks near the front crankshaft oil seal on 1991-92 GM 1.9L Saturn engines.  This leak is between the seal and the pulley or damper.  Both SOHC and DOHC engines have been affected from what appears to be excessive porosity of the pulley or damper.

If the leak is determined to be in this area on 1991-92 engines, pulley/damper and seal  replacement may be necessary.  A replacement pulley for the SOHC engine is available under  Part #21000756.  The DOHC engine requires a different pulley with the Part #21006009.  Both engines use the same oil seal Part #21000707.  Depending on the extent of the porosity, it may be possible to install a thin-wall sleeve on the pulley.

Dampers and pulleys built after VIN Code # NZ143903 in 1992 have been machined to provide a better sealing surface. 

                                                                          The AERA Technical Committee
 PISTON & CONNECTING ROD ASSEMBLY
                           Piston & Connecting Rod Assembly Information For
                                     1991-99 GM 1.9L VIN 7, 8 & 9 Engines

The AERA Technical Committee offers the following piston and connecting rod assembly information for 1991-99 GM 1.9L VIN 7, 8 & 9 engines. These engines are used exclusively in Saturn vehicles. This information is to be used to update the originally published service manual contents, as it was somewhat inconclusive. 

In some instances the piston used may not have a front mark indicated on the piston. In those instances view the underside of the piston and reference the rectangular casting block located on the piston pin boss. The markings on the piston pin boss should face the rear of the engine. Those markings vary in appearance depending on engine and piston application as shown in Figure 1. 

It should also be noted that the piston pin retaining ring pry slot shown in Figure 1 should be toward the intake manifold for SOHC engines. On DOHC engines the two-machined eyebrows on top of the piston go toward the intake side (engine right) of the engine.

The connecting rod bearing locating lug for all engines should be toward the exhaust manifold (engine left) side of the engine when correctly assembled to the piston as shown in Figure 2.
 
                                                                                The AERA Technical Committee
 CYL HEAD OIL FEED MODIFIATION ON 91-92 1.9L
                            Cylinder Head Oil Feed Orifice Caution On
                                        1991-92 GM 1.9L Engines

The AERA Technical Committee cautions members on the cylinder head oiling orifice on 1991-92 GM 1.9L engines used in its Saturn vehicles. The caution expressed involves removing the existing orifice in engines built before 1993.

Apparently under certain situations, this orifice may limit the amount of oil to the cylinder head. Limited oil supply to the cylinder head may cause camshaft or lifter bore scuffing during engine start up. The amount of oil supplied to the cylinder head is controlled by a .157 (4.0 mm) opening in the head gasket.

It is therefore recommended anytime the cylinder head has been removed, that the oiling orifice be removed also. The orifice may be removed by installing a screw into it and pulling it out with a slide hammer.
 
                                                                               The AERA Technical Committee
 ENGINE MISS OF POPPING NOISE
	                                      Engine Miss Or Popping Noise On 
                                      1991-97 GM 1.9L Engines VIN 8 & 9

The AERA Technical Committee offers the following information on an engine miss or popping noise on 1991-97 GM 1.9L VIN 8 & 9 engines. These vehicles 
equipped with SOHC engines built before and including VIN VZ263139, either with LK0 or L24 engines, may miss or lack power under all normal engine-operating conditions. A popping noise may also be emitted through the exhaust manifold on deceleration or idle.
 
One cause of this condition is gum and/or carbon deposit accumulation in the exhaust valve guide(s) and on the valve stem(s). These deposits may cause an 
exhaust valve(s) to stick open producing a misfire or noise. This condition may occur under all normal engine-operating conditions.

To prevent the possibility of gum or carbon deposit forming and causing the above-mentioned condition, a fuel additive is advised. Saturn suggests adding one 20 oz. bottle of Saturn fuel injector cleaner Part #21007313 or equivalent (fuel injection cleaner containing Techron) to a full tank of fuel. The fuel injector cleaner must contain Techron or gum deposits may not be removed from the valves and the valve guides. Caution: Adding a full 20 oz. bottle of injection cleaner to a partially filled gas tank may cause the fuel to create deposit formations on the valves and in the combustion chambers.

Machining the exhaust valve guide lower is also required to complete the repair. Using the service tool #SA9704E a pilot end mill and plastic stop, machine the exhaust guides from the combustion chamber side of the head. Apply pressure straight on to the guide so that no damage is done to the service tool. The plastic stop will make contact with the valve seat, shown in the figure below, when the end mill has cut the guide down. The approximate amount of guide removal is .406. For best results, oil or cutting oil should not be used. After the guide has been shortened, use a 7mm reamer or chamfering tool to remove any sharp edges left by the end mill.

                                                                           The AERA Technical Committee
 CRANKSHAFT IDENTIFICATION
                                       Crankshaft Identification On 
                                1991-97 GM 1.9L VIN 7, 8 & 9 Engines

AERA members have reported some confusion identifying crankshafts for 1991-97 GM 1.9L VIN 7, 8 & 9 engines. There seems to be only one crank casting number, 21000883, but two different crankshaft designs. These engines are used in the GM Saturn vehicles. 

The difference between those crankshafts is in the amount of advance of the reluctor wheel. Both versions have a notch in the reluctor wheel for direct ignition, but in the years of 1993-97 the notch is advanced 10° more than it was 
in 1991-92. 

To distinguish which crankshafts are advanced 10° more than the others, position the crankshaft with the snout facing you. Rotate the crankshaft until the key-way is at a three o?clock position as viewed from the crankshaft front. Then, 
use twelve o?clock as a reference point and observe the location of the notches machined into the reluctor wheel. Refer to the illustrations below before proceeding. 

If the double notches are about even with the left edge of  the cast window of the reluctor wheel, it is a 1991-92 crankshaft. If the double notches are closer to the twelve  o'clock position and approximately 1/2 to the left of the left edge of the cast window, it is the 1993-97 crankshaft. These two crankshafts should not be interchanged or driveability issues will result.

                                                                                The AERA Technical Committee
 ENGINE COOLANT LEAKS ON 1.9L DOHC SATURN ENGINES
                                                   Engine Coolant Leaks On
                                           2000-2001 GM 1.9L DOHC Engines

The AERA Technical Committee offers the following information on an engine coolant leak on 2000-2001 GM 1.9L DOHC engines. These engines are used in the Saturn vehicles made by GM.  Vehicles affected are up to and include VIN 1Z305500. Some customers may comment about loss of engine coolant, low coolant levels and/or engine overheating. 

These customer complaints may be due to the intake manifold gasket leaking. The leak may occur at the cylinder head to intake manifold coolant passage located at the rear of the number four cylinder intake port. The intake manifold seal may experience a compression set allowing an external coolant leak past the seal during cold engine operating conditions. 

To solve the complaint of coolant loss, Saturn has come up with a revised intake manifold gasket for the DOHC engines. The gasket is a new 2-piece design as show in Figure 1. A separate coolant seal (1) that is made of a different material and is black in color. A shortened intake manifold gasket (2) is of the same material and orange in color like the original one-piece design. 

                                                                         The AERA Technical Committee
 INTERFERENCE ENGINES
                                          Interference Engines

The AERA Technical Committee would like to offer the following information on engines that present the possibility of interference between pistons and valves. The interference or contact may bend valve(s) when the timing between the camshaft and crankshaft is interrupted. This is generally the result of a timing belt or chain breaking or slipping.

The following list are engines that AERA is currently aware of that have exhibited interference. There may be other engines that are not listed below that have the possibility of piston to valve contact. If the engine you are working on is not listed, do not assume that it is a freewheeling design. It is suggested to add to this listing as additional information is obtained.

ACURA
1986-89 1.6L Integra
1991-95 1.7L Integra
1990-95 1.8L Integra 
1986-89 2.5L Legend
1992-94 2.5L Vigor
1986-89 2.7L Legend
1990      2.7L Legend
1991-95 3.0L NSX
1991-95 3.2L Legend

AUDI
1970-93 All Except 1970-77 
1.9L & 1970-73 1.8L

BMW
1987-95 2.5L 325I 525I
1994-95 4.0L 740I

CHRYSLER
1993-95 1.5L Colt 
1987-88 1.5L Colt	
1992-95 1.5L Eagle Summit
1987-88 1.6L Colt	
1989-92 1.6L Eagle Summit
1994-98 2.0L Neon Stratus
1990-95 2.0L Eagle Talon

DAIHATSU
1988-92 1.0L Charade
1988-92 1.3L Charade
1990-92 1.6L Rocky

FIAT
1974-79 1.3L 128 Series
1979-82 1.5L Stranda
1974-78 1.6L 124 Series
1974-78 1.8L 124 Series
1974-78 1.8L 131 Series, Brava
1979-82 2.0L Brava, Spider 

FORD
1981-85 1.6L Escort, EXP
1981-83 1.6L LN7, Lynx
1984-85 2.0L Escort, Tempo
1993-95 2.0L Probe
1986-88 2.0L Ranger
1984-87 2.0L Lynx, Topaz Diesel
1985    2.2L Ranger
1989-92 2.2L Probe
1986-88 2.3L Ranger
1986-87 2.3L Diesel Ranger
1991-98 4.6L Crown Victoria

GM
1986-95 1.0L Geo Metro
1989-91 1.0L Firefly (CANADA)
1985-88 1.5L Sunburst (CANADA)
1985-89 1.5L Spectrum
1990-93 1.6L Prizm, Storm
1981-84 1.8L Diesel (CANADA)
1982-86 1.8L Buick Skyhawk
1990-98 1.9L Saturn
1987-88 2.0L Buick Skyhawk
1988-95 2.3L Quad Four
1985-87 3.0L Buick
1979-95 3.8L Buick

HONDA
1986-87 1.0L Prelude
1973-78 1.2L All
1973-78 1.3L All
1980-84 1.3L All
1973-78 1.5L All
1985-89 1.5L Civic
1988-95 1.5L Civic, CRX
1993-95 1.5L Civic Del Sol
1979-84 1.5L All
1985-87 1.5L CRX
1993-95 1.6L Civic Del Sol
1973-78 1.6L All
1980-82 1.6L All
1988-95 1.6L Civic, CRX
1984-87 1.8L Prelude, Accord
1979-83 1.8L All
1986-91 2.0L Prelude
1990-91 2.1L Prelude
1990-95 2.2L Prelude, Accord
1992-95 2.2L Prelude
1995      2.7L Accord

HYUNDAI
1984-95 1.5L Excel Scoupe
1995-98 1.5L Accent
1992-95 1.6L Elantra
1993-95 1.8L Elantra
1992-95 2.0L Sonata
1989-91 2.4L Sonata
1990-95 3.0L Sonata

INFINITI
1990-92 3.0L M30

ISUZU
1987-89 1.5L I-Mark
1990-93 1.6L Stylus Impulse
1987-89 2.0L Impulse
1981-87 2.2L Diesel Truck
1986-95 2.3L Truck Trooper
1988-95 2.6L Truck Rodeo Amigo
1991-96 3.2L Trooper Rodeo Amigo

KIA
1995      2.0L Sportage

MAZDA
1984-85 2.0L 626 
1988-92 2.2L 626 MX6
1989-93 2.2L Pickup
1988-95 3.0L 929 MPV

MITSUBISHI
1985-95 1.5L Mirage Precise
1990-92 1.6L Mirage
1989-95 2.0L Galant Eclipse
1983-86 2.3L Diesel Pickup
1994-95 2.4L Galant

NISSAN
1982      1.5L Centra
1983-88 1.6L Sentra Pulsar
1987-89 1.8L Pulsar
1982-89 2.0L Stanza 300ZX
1984-95 3.0L Maxima 300ZX Pathfinder

PORSCHE
1976-83 2.0L 924
1976-89 2.5L 944 Series
1989      2.7L 944 Series
1989-91 3.0L 944 Series
1976-83 4.5L 928
1984      4.7L 928
1985-91 5.0L 928
1992-95 5.4L 928

SUZUKI
1985-94 1.3L Samurai Sidekick
1989-94 1.3L Swift

TOYOTA
1986-95 1.5L Tercel
1981-83 2.2L Pickup
1984-87 2.4L Pickup
1982-88 2.8L Celica Cressida
1987-94 3.0L 4-Runner

VOLKSWAGEN
1976-91 All Except 1.9 2.1L Engine
1990-92 1.6L Golf (CANADA) Jetta
1990-95 2.0L GTI Jetta GLI Passat

VOLVO
1991      2.3L Coupe 940
1986-94 2.3L 240 740 940 

                                                                              The AERA Technical Committee
 ENGINE OIL IN THE COOLING SYSTEM ON 1.9L VIN 8 & 9 ENGINES
                               Engine Oil in the Cooling System On
                                   1991-97 GM 1.9L VIN 8 & 9 Engines

AERA members have reported engine oil in the cooling system on 1991-97 GM 1.9L VIN 8 & 9 engines. Only Saturn vehicles equipped with this SOHC engine may encounter this condition. Symptoms of this condition may include engine overheating. The owner may also comment on continuously adding engine oil to the crankcase.

The source of this condition may be located in the rear of the cylinder head at the number four and five camshaft journal bores and areas. Cracks located in 
this area (See Illustrations Below) of the head may allow engine oil to mix with engine coolant. These cracks may have been caused by irregularities during 
manufacturing of the cylinder head. Pressure testing of the cylinder head with the camshaft installed, may not always reveal a leak. Removal of the camshaft
is necessary to successfully pressure test this cylinder head.

AERA members have successfully repaired some of the cracks in the cylinder heads. If the cracking of the cylinder head is beyond repair, Saturn recommends 
replacing the cylinder head. Replacement of the head has been covered under the normal Saturn warranty conditions.
                 
                   Year Model               Head Gasket                       Head Part Number
                                                       Part Number
                 
                    1991-94                      21008324                                   21008232
                       1995                         21007332                                   21007138
                     1996-97                      21007332                                   21006837
  
                                                                              The AERA Technical Committee