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Toyota Pickup Engine Information

The following technical bulletins were published by AERA.

CONNECTING ROD NUT TIGHTENING CAUTION

                                  Connecting Rod Nut Tightening Caution On
                                          Toyota 2.5 & 3.0L Engines

AERA machine shops should be particularly cautious when tightening the connecting rod nuts on Toyota 2.5 & 3.0L V-6 engines used in the 4 Runner and Pickup.  

The connecting rod nuts for these engines use a combination torque, then turn method to achieve the proper clamping load.  First the nut is torqued to 18 lbs.ft., then turned an additional 90°.  It is possible for the rod bolt to slightly turn inside the connecting rod during this process, causing the final torque to be below specifications.  The nut must be turned 90° relative to the bolt, not the connecting rod.  

During assembly, instead of marking the nut and the connecting rod with a paint stick, mark the nut and the bolt to ensure that the proper final torque is achieved.

                                                                      The AERA Technical Committee

COOLANT LOSS ON 18R & 20R ENGINES

                                                     Coolant Loss On
                          Toyota Celica, Corona & Pickup With 18R & 20R Engines

When a coolant loss problem exists in the Toyota 20R engine, the manufacturer recommends that the engine core plugs be checked before the cylinder head is removed to inspect the head gasket or the head for porosity.

The core plugs are located on the exhaust side of the head.  If a leak is found in this area, remove the core plug and gasket. After thoroughly cleaning all the parts and threads, apply automotive pipe sealant or equivalent to the thread area. Reinstall the core plugs and tighten them to 22 ft. lbs. (31N·m).

                                                                        The AERA Technical Committee

INTERFERENCE ENGINES

                                          Interference Engines

The AERA Technical Committee would like to offer the following information on engines that present the possibility of interference between pistons and valves. The interference or contact may bend valve(s) when the timing between the camshaft and crankshaft is interrupted. This is generally the result of a timing belt or chain breaking or slipping.

The following list are engines that AERA is currently aware of that have exhibited interference. There may be other engines that are not listed below that have the possibility of piston to valve contact. If the engine you are working on is not listed, do not assume that it is a freewheeling design. It is suggested to add to this listing as additional information is obtained.

ACURA
1986-89 1.6L Integra
1991-95 1.7L Integra
1990-95 1.8L Integra 
1986-89 2.5L Legend
1992-94 2.5L Vigor
1986-89 2.7L Legend
1990      2.7L Legend
1991-95 3.0L NSX
1991-95 3.2L Legend

AUDI
1970-93 All Except 1970-77 
1.9L & 1970-73 1.8L

BMW
1987-95 2.5L 325I 525I
1994-95 4.0L 740I

CHRYSLER
1993-95 1.5L Colt 
1987-88 1.5L Colt	
1992-95 1.5L Eagle Summit
1987-88 1.6L Colt	
1989-92 1.6L Eagle Summit
1994-98 2.0L Neon Stratus
1990-95 2.0L Eagle Talon

DAIHATSU
1988-92 1.0L Charade
1988-92 1.3L Charade
1990-92 1.6L Rocky

FIAT
1974-79 1.3L 128 Series
1979-82 1.5L Stranda
1974-78 1.6L 124 Series
1974-78 1.8L 124 Series
1974-78 1.8L 131 Series, Brava
1979-82 2.0L Brava, Spider 

FORD
1981-85 1.6L Escort, EXP
1981-83 1.6L LN7, Lynx
1984-85 2.0L Escort, Tempo
1993-95 2.0L Probe
1986-88 2.0L Ranger
1984-87 2.0L Lynx, Topaz Diesel
1985    2.2L Ranger
1989-92 2.2L Probe
1986-88 2.3L Ranger
1986-87 2.3L Diesel Ranger
1991-98 4.6L Crown Victoria

GM
1986-95 1.0L Geo Metro
1989-91 1.0L Firefly (CANADA)
1985-88 1.5L Sunburst (CANADA)
1985-89 1.5L Spectrum
1990-93 1.6L Prizm, Storm
1981-84 1.8L Diesel (CANADA)
1982-86 1.8L Buick Skyhawk
1990-98 1.9L Saturn
1987-88 2.0L Buick Skyhawk
1988-95 2.3L Quad Four
1985-87 3.0L Buick
1979-95 3.8L Buick

HONDA
1986-87 1.0L Prelude
1973-78 1.2L All
1973-78 1.3L All
1980-84 1.3L All
1973-78 1.5L All
1985-89 1.5L Civic
1988-95 1.5L Civic, CRX
1993-95 1.5L Civic Del Sol
1979-84 1.5L All
1985-87 1.5L CRX
1993-95 1.6L Civic Del Sol
1973-78 1.6L All
1980-82 1.6L All
1988-95 1.6L Civic, CRX
1984-87 1.8L Prelude, Accord
1979-83 1.8L All
1986-91 2.0L Prelude
1990-91 2.1L Prelude
1990-95 2.2L Prelude, Accord
1992-95 2.2L Prelude
1995      2.7L Accord

HYUNDAI
1984-95 1.5L Excel Scoupe
1995-98 1.5L Accent
1992-95 1.6L Elantra
1993-95 1.8L Elantra
1992-95 2.0L Sonata
1989-91 2.4L Sonata
1990-95 3.0L Sonata

INFINITI
1990-92 3.0L M30

ISUZU
1987-89 1.5L I-Mark
1990-93 1.6L Stylus Impulse
1987-89 2.0L Impulse
1981-87 2.2L Diesel Truck
1986-95 2.3L Truck Trooper
1988-95 2.6L Truck Rodeo Amigo
1991-96 3.2L Trooper Rodeo Amigo

KIA
1995      2.0L Sportage

MAZDA
1984-85 2.0L 626 
1988-92 2.2L 626 MX6
1989-93 2.2L Pickup
1988-95 3.0L 929 MPV

MITSUBISHI
1985-95 1.5L Mirage Precise
1990-92 1.6L Mirage
1989-95 2.0L Galant Eclipse
1983-86 2.3L Diesel Pickup
1994-95 2.4L Galant

NISSAN
1982      1.5L Centra
1983-88 1.6L Sentra Pulsar
1987-89 1.8L Pulsar
1982-89 2.0L Stanza 300ZX
1984-95 3.0L Maxima 300ZX Pathfinder

PORSCHE
1976-83 2.0L 924
1976-89 2.5L 944 Series
1989      2.7L 944 Series
1989-91 3.0L 944 Series
1976-83 4.5L 928
1984      4.7L 928
1985-91 5.0L 928
1992-95 5.4L 928

SUZUKI
1985-94 1.3L Samurai Sidekick
1989-94 1.3L Swift

TOYOTA
1986-95 1.5L Tercel
1981-83 2.2L Pickup
1984-87 2.4L Pickup
1982-88 2.8L Celica Cressida
1987-94 3.0L 4-Runner

VOLKSWAGEN
1976-91 All Except 1.9 2.1L Engine
1990-92 1.6L Golf (CANADA) Jetta
1990-95 2.0L GTI Jetta GLI Passat

VOLVO
1991      2.3L Coupe 940
1986-94 2.3L 240 740 940 

                                                                              The AERA Technical Committee

CRANKSHAFT PULLEY TORQUE ON 18R-C ENGINE

       Crankshaft Pulley Torque Specifications Changed On
        Toyota Celica, Corona & Pickup With 18R-C Engine

The crankshaft pulley set bolt is designed to exert thrust force
against the crankshaft timing gear to prevent movement.  Toyota
has increased the torque specification as follows:

     Old Spec.                New Spec.
650 Kg-CM (47 ft. lbs.)     1000 Kg-CM (72 ft. lbs.)

                                                                           The AERA Technical Committee

COOLANT IN THE ENGINE OIL SUPPLY

                                       Coolant In The Oil On
                                  Toyota 20R & 22R Engines

AERA members have reported instances of engine coolant mixing with the engine lubricating oil supply.

In some of these cases, pressure testing the cylinder block and head has not identified the source of the leak.  However, close inspection of the aluminum front cover revealed an area where the timing chain wore through into a water passage.  

In this engine the water pump is mounted to the front cover.  When the timing chain stretches and the automatic tensioner is no longer able to take up the slack, the loose chain can slap against the front cover.  Continuous contact will eventually wear a hole into the front cover, introducing engine coolant into the
crankcase.

                                                                      The AERA Technical Committee

LOOSE OIL PUMP PICKUP SCREENS

                                       Loose Oil Pump Pickup Screen On
                                              GM 2.8L (173 CID) Engines

Reuse of the oil pump pickup screen on GM 2.8L (173 CID) engines may result in low engine oil pressure and related problems.

The OE oil pump for this engine is manufactured out of aluminum whereas most aftermarket oil pumps are manufactured out of traditional cast iron.  Removing the oil pump pickup screen, cleaning it and then reinstalling it in an aftermarket oil pump may result in a loose fit.  

Apparently, the diameter of the opening that accepts the pickup screen in the aluminum pump is smaller than in the cast iron counterpart.  This tight fit shrinks the diameter of the pickup screen, but is necessary because of the differing expansion rates between the aluminum oil pump housing and the steel pickup
screen.  Reusing the same screen in a cast iron pump that does not require this much interference fit, and therefore features a slightly larger bore, may result in an undesirable loose fit of the screen.  This could draw air into the lubricating oil system causing low oil pressure, valve train noise and lead to serious
engine damage.

The AERA Technical Committee recommends the replacement of all oil pump pickup screens as part of the remanufacturing process on light duty engines.

For additional information see AERA Bulletins: TB 680, TB 439 & SB 140

                                                                      The AERA Technical Committee

CYLINDER HEAD CRACKS

                     Cylinder Head Cracks On
                1983-86 GM 2.0L (121 CID) Engines

AERA member machine shops have reported cracking of the cylinder
heads of 1983-86 GM 2.0L (121 CID) engines.  Complaints of coolant in the engine oil may be a futher indication.

This engine joined the GM lineup in 1983 and featured a cast iron cylinder head assembly through the 1986 model year.  The engine has been used in the J cars as well as S-10 pickup trucks.  As of the 1987 model year the cylinder head is now manufactured out of aluminum.

Cracks have been noticed in the cast iron cylinder head near the valve spring seats at the top of the casting.  Usually cracks develop across the #6 intake valve spring seat and continue across and behind the #4 and #5 exhaust valve spring seat.  Magnetic particle inspection should be used to determine the
extent of the crack and what repairs, if any, may be performed.  

A neglected cooling system may deteriorate the casting where a small amount of stress will induce cracks.  Cracks may also be caused by engine freeze up, overheating, or disassembly of the engine without adequate cool down.  

                                                                                 The AERA Technical Committee

REVISED PCV VALVE ON 2.2L 4YEC ENGINE

                         Revised PCV Valve On
                   1984-87 Toyota 2.2L 4YEC Engines

The AERA Technical Committee offers the following information
concerning a revised PCV (Positive Crankcase Ventilation) valve on
1984-87 Toyota 2.2L 4YEC engines. The purpose of this revised
assembly is to improve the control of the PCV system in colder
ambient temperatures.

This revised system involves installing a new valve and hose
assembly as shown below. Installing the revised components seals and
meters the air flow through the system in all ambient temperatures.
If the PCV system is not completely sealed, it becomes ineffective
and may result in undesirable oil consumption.

Engines built beginning with serial number 4Y-0058330 have the
revised components. Parts are available with Part #12204-15022 for
the valve and 12261-73021 for the hose assembly to update older
engines. 

                                         The AERA Technical Committee


October 1996 - TB 1387


##END##

REVISED CRANKSHAFT CAUTION

                                Revised Crankshaft Caution On
                               1994 Toyota 2.2L 5SFE Engines

The AERA Technical Committee advises members of a revised crankshaft design on 1994 Toyota 2.2L 5SFE engines. This design change prevents the interchanging of old and new designs. The modified area is the drive gear for the engine balance assembly.

To reduce cold engine noise at start-up, the number of teeth on the balance shaft drive gear was reduced from 66 to 44. The change occurred with engine serial #55537901, which was built in July of 1994.

The balance shaft assembly gears also changed at the same time to accommodate the revised crankshaft. The first design used 32 teeth on each gear and the second uses 22 teeth. Those assemblies are not interchangeable.

For additional information see AERA Technical Bulletin TB 1347

                                                                            The AERA Technical Committee

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